Having a wider face has been linked with higher levels of attraction and aggression, and now research has suggested it may also be a sign of psychopathy.
A frequent reason for people to reject the claims of Happeh Theory is because many of the claims made by Happeh Theory are contrary to accepted scientific pronouncements. Even though scientists have frequently been proven wrong about those pronouncements over the past decades and centuries. To counter that blind faith that people generally have in scientists, and to hopefully spur their reconsideration of that blind faith, stories concerning instances of scientific mistakes or malfeasance are provided here at the Happeh Theory website for the edification of the interested reader.
The news story that is the basis of this blog post supports the claim by Happeh Theory that scientists are either wrong about their claims, or they make claims that turn out to be harmful to people. The news story discusses a scientific study that has discovered that men who take Viagra, a pill sold to millions of men around the world as a beneficial drug, can increase the chance of developing skin cancer by 30 percent.
Anyone who doubts Happeh Theory because it’s claims run counter to accepted scientific pronouncements, will hopefully reconsider their trust in scientists who would create and prescribe a drug to millions of men that can increase their chance of developing skin cancer, regardless of any possible beneficial effects it might provide.
If those scientists were wrong or negligent in their claims of the benefits of Viagra, isn’t it also possible that their claims that run counter to the claims of Happeh Theory are also wrong?
The news story about the study is reprinted below.
Millions of men who use Viagra and similar drugs for erectile dysfunction could be at greater risk of developing skin cancer, researchers have warned.
A study of more than 4,000 men in Sweden found that those who were prescribed a single course of the drugs were one third more likely to develop a malignant melanoma. For men who had multiple prescriptions the risk was raised by 20 per cent.
Although the risk was still small – a one in 25 chance of developing cancer compared with the usual one in 33 risk – researchers from New York University said the findings were still statistically significant.
Drugs like Viagra and Cialis work by turning off the enzyme PDE5 – a chemical which takes away an erection after sex by limiting blood supply.
However scientists now think that malignant melanoma is fuelled by a faulty gene (BRAF) which suppresses the enzyme, suggesting that PDE5 plays an important role in preventing the spread of skin cancer. It is feared that Viagra, and drugs like it, could be mimicking the effect of the mutated BRAF gene.
“The use of PDE5 inhibitors was associated with a modest but significant increased risk of malignant melanoma,” said Dr Stacy Loeb of New York University.
Viagra was formulated by pharmaceutical company Pfizer and was launched as a sex-enhancing medication in Britain in 1999.
It was originally developed to treat high blood pressure and angina but was found to be ineffective for these conditions.
However doctors noticed it led to sustained erections, as a result of temporarily increasing blood flow to the penis. More than two million British men are prescribed Viagra each year, costing the NHS £40.3million.
Health experts in the UK said men should not be overly concerned by the findings and said it could be driven by other factors.
Prof Stephen Evans, Professor of Pharmacoepidemiology, at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, said: The risk of malignant melanoma associated with increased income was notably larger than that associated with ED drugs.
“This may also be associated with exposure to sunlight. It may be the wealthy who are able to travel to the sun in Sweden’s winter! It may be that those who travel are also more likely to use ED drugs.
“This study is extremely weak evidence for an increase in risk of malignant melanoma with ED drugs, and seems much more likely to be associated with other factors, especially exposure to sunlight.”
‘Viagra for women’ could be on sale next year
Prof Chris Chapple, Secretary General of the European Association of Urology, Consultant Urological Surgeon and Honorary Professor at Sheffield Hallam University, added: “This paper reports a previously unreported potential association between the use of this type of drug – a PDE5 inhibitor for erectile dysfunction- and low stage melanoma.
“Whilst this is an interesting observation there is a lack of an association between dosing and incidence; the association was more noticeable in patients who had filled single prescriptions as compared to more prolonged exposure to this type of drug.
“It’s an interesting observation, but it should not be a trigger for any change in current clinical practice relating to the use of drugs for the treatment of erectile dysfunction such as Viagra and related compounds.”
The research was published in the journal JAMA.
A spokesman for Pfizer said: ” We believe there is no reliable scientific evidence that sildenafil citrate causes melanoma.
“We are committed to ensuring patient safety and regularly monitor and evaluate any adverse events reported to Pfizer directly or indirectly through secondary sources.”
The scientific case that is the subject of this post found that skinny jeans can cause muscle and nerve damage, which supports the claim by Happeh Theory that tight clothing is one of the Plots By Evil to weaken and harm human beings mentioned elsewhere on this site.
The news story reporting on those scientific findings is reprinted below.
Skinny jeans can seriously damage muscles and nerves, doctors have warned.
The denim design has been a fashion staple for many years but experts have warned that they can cause muscle and nerve damage to wearers’ legs.
The Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry has described a case in which a 35-year-old woman had to be cut out of a pair after her calves swelled and ballooned in size.
The woman, who has not been named, had spent several hours squatting as she helped a family member move house in Australia. After a while, she began to have difficulty walking and lost sensation in her legs.
She fell and struggled to get up again. She was found lying on the ground hours later and was taken to Royal Adelaide Hospital where she had to be cut out of the jeans. Doctors found that her muscles and nerves were damaged.
Doctors believe the woman developed a condition called compartment syndrome; a condition caused by increased pressure within a confined body space and resulting in nerve compression.
As the woman was squatting, the tight jeans stopped her calf muscles from being able to swell outwards, instead forcing them to compress downwards and crush the nerves.
Doctors have also previously warned against wearing high heels with skinny jeans, as wearing the shoes tilts the wearer’s pelvis and increases pressure against the jeans, risking nerve damage.
“I have not heard of this being an issue with skinny jeans, but it is an issue with tight bandages and plaster casts, said Dr Andreas Loefler, vice president of the Australian Orthopaedic Association.
“There’s just not enough blood supply to the muscles and some muscles actually die, which is why it’s such a serious issue.”
Wasim Khan, a surgeon who specialises in compartment syndrome at the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital and UCL said people wearing tight jeans should pay attention to any loss of feeling in their legs.
“If you start to get any numbness the first thing you should ask is whether your jeans are too tight, especially if you are doing a lot of activity.
“Walkers are known to get chronic compartment syndrome where the muscles swell because of lots of activity, so they may be more likely to suffer.”
In 2012 doctors in Baltimore, US, have reported cases of women with numb legs after their skinny jeans compressed a nerve at the top of the thigh. The condition, called meralgia paresthetica, or “tingling thigh syndrome” was made worse by wearing high heels, which cause the pelvis to tip and increase the pressure.
The science of Phrenology claims that the personality, emotional traits, and mental ability of a human being are linked to the size and shape of the head. New scientific research claims to have discovered that a happy looking face with upturned eyebrows and upward curving mouth cause others to view that person as trustworthy, and that a wider face is interpreted as belonging to a competent person.
This study shows that whether scientists or the general public actually believe Phrenology is a valid science or not, they react as if Phrenology is true. Treating a wide faced individual as if they are more competent is a Phrenological connection because a wide face is being associated with mental ability. Treating people with upturned eyebrows and mouths as more trustworthy is a Phrenological connection, because trustworthiness, a personality trait, is being linked to upturned eyebrows and mouths.
The original news story is reprinted below.